Archive | Issue 71-Autumn 2018 RSS feed for this section

Teach children to fail well and fast

17 Aug

Summer is a time of tests and examinations and autumn of league tables.  Throughout the year we have inspections.  All three have one thing in common.   Achievement.   God help children if they fail and thus threaten their schools/academies with a lower rank on the national league table.  God help schools/academies if they fail their Ofsted inspections.   The education culture in our country appears to be obsessed with success and terrified of failure.   I question whether this is the culture we should be promoting.

Education is sometimes compared to a three-legged stool.  The first leg constitutes the disciplines/subjects that are taught, often, discretely, subjects such as mathematics, history, geography and music.  The second leg is each of the cross-curricular themes that help develop children in a rounded manner – such as expression/language and the ability to think.   The third leg is the way education is promoted, e.g. how teachers teach (e.g. telling and teamwork) and enabling children to learn (e.g. discovery, imitation and observation).  The late Professor Ted Wragg of Exeter University ascribed a different metaphor to this calling it the cuboid curriculum.

But there is a fourth leg (going by my analogy) or dimension (going by Professor Wragg’s one) – i.e. the qualities that we wish to promote within our children, a key one being resilience.   Intrinsic within resilience is managing and coping with failure.   Because every school/academy wishes to be at the top of its league table, governors, headteachers and staff do everything it takes to succeed.  This desire is both, intrinsically and extrinsically, passed on to the pupils.   And when they fail, their skies come tumbling down on them – as it did with chicken-licken in the toddler’s story.

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Damian Hinds’s educational vision

17 Aug

Damian Hinds described the direction in which he will steer the future education of the children in our country. He proposes expanding opportunities for young people by loosening the reins of accountability on schools and academies and giving teachers greater opportunities to grow and develop professionally.

I        National Association of Headteachers’ Conference

When addressing a conference of the National Association of Headteachers on 4 May 2018 in Liverpool, he told delegates: “Accountability is vital. Children only get one shot at an education and we owe them the best…where they are being let down we need to take action quickly – so no one ends up left behind.

“But what I’ve found from speaking to many of you these last few months is that there is also real confusion within the sector… I believe school leaders need complete clarity on how the accountability system will operate.

“I’m clear that Ofsted is the body that can provide an independent, rounded judgement of a school’s performance.

“This means we will not be forcibly turning schools into academies unless Ofsted has judged them to be inadequate.  I believe strongly that becoming an academy can bring enormous benefits to schools. Hundreds of schools every year voluntarily choose to become academies and I want this to be a positive choice for more and more schools as we move forward.

“We must also have a system that does more than just deal with failure… But we will do so in the right way, and there will be a single, transparent data trigger for schools to be offered support – which we will consult on.  I intend this to replace the current confusing system of having both below the floor and coasting standards for performance…

“I have a clear message to schools and their leaders: I trust you to get on with the job.”

Mr Hinds recognised that those involved in education knew about the “what” that was needed to secure excellent provision for our children.  However, there continued to be dissonance on the “how” of achieving those objectives.  While schools and academies – like all other publicly funded institutions – were accountable to the taxpayers, there was “confusion within the sector” on the multiple accountabilities to which school leaders and teachers were subjected.

He said that Ofsted (and only Ofsted) would be the body that would provide independent, rounded judgements on the performances of schools and academies.  He wanted schools – including those that required improvement – to be free to make their own decisions, and if they wished to go down the academy route, he thought the choice should be a positive one rather than one stemming from compulsion.  Schools that are struggling will, in the first instance, be offered support before being shanghaied into another academisation.

He recognised that the system of having below the floor and coasting standards for performance needed to be replaced by something that was simpler and coherent.  To this end, he would be working.  What was encouraging was his statement: “I have a clear message to schools and their leaders: I trust you to get on with the job.”

To retain good, experienced teachers in England, he stated that they would be offered up to a year’s paid sabbatical after 10 years’ services.   For this purpose, he has set £5 million aside.   It is more likely that a teacher will receive a term’s sabbatical, albeit occasionally, she/he could be offered a year off to study or spend time working in an industry relevant to her/his field.

Newly qualified teachers (NQTs) will have their probationary period lengthened from a year to two years.  “We will be introducing an enhanced offer of support for new teachers, including extending the induction period to two years,” he said, “and we will work with the profession to develop a new early career content framework that will set out all the training and mentoring a teacher is entitled to receive in those first years.”

Mr Hinds has recognised that the profession is haemorrhaging teachers at a very unhealthy rate.   He remarked: “We have a shared goal of making sure teaching remains an attractive, fulfilling profession.  We will take an unflinching look at the things that discourage people from going into teaching or make them consider leaving and we will look at how we support teachers to get better at what they do and hone their expertise and career progression.”

Mr Hinds will create an advisory, working group with the teacher unions to help develop the strategy of the Department for Education.  Among other things, this working group will address teachers’ workload and how it can be eased for them without negatively affecting the quality of education, the progress that children make and the standards they achieve.  He acknowledged that unacceptable burdens were placed on teachers by the policies they set on marking and the data that they were directed to garner and maintain.   He hinted that governors and headteachers were responsible but they in turn passed on the pressures from central bodies such as inspectors, Regional School Commissioners (RSCs) and the DfE itself to the front-line workers – teachers and teaching assistants.

He said that standards in the classrooms were higher than ever.  Altogether, 89% of schools and academies had been judged Good or Outstanding by Ofsted.   This should give us cause to be optimistic.

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Children’s mental health problems cry out for solutions

17 Aug

Data published by The Times on 6 August 2018 revealed that the number of girls who have self-harmed, based on hospital admissions, doubled in the last 20 years in Britain.   Among teenagers, the number of both, boys and girls, who admitted self-poisoning with easily available and prescription drugs rose more sharply.

According to the National Health Service 7,327 girls were admitted to hospital in 1997 for self-harm.   This jumped to 13,463 in 2017.  Altogether, 249 girls were treated for attempting to overdose themselves. This rose to 2,736 – over tenfold – in 2017.     However, boys who self-harmed stayed constant (2,236 in 1997 and 2,332 last year). Notwithstanding, boys who overdosed themselves increased over five and a half times from 152 in 1997 to 839 in 2017.

Denis Campbell wrote in The Guardian on 23 June 2018 that teachers said that Britain’s school children were suffering from an epidemic of anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts but barely received the NHS treatment they needed. Altogether, 78% of teachers encountered at least one pupil struggling with mental health problems over the last year and 14% of cases were allied to suicidal thoughts and behaviour.  Two-thirds of 300 teachers surveyed by the health charity, Stem4, said that they had to help pupils suffering from anxiety. A little under half (45%) of teachers supported at least one pupil suffering with depression, 30% with eating disorders, 28% with self-harm and 10% with addiction.

Dr Nihara Krause, the Chief Executive of Stem4, said: “Schools face huge challenges in dealing with mental health issues of their students, and teachers are on the front line. They witness first-hand the devastating impact of pressures such as exam anxiety, bullying, and family problems. The consequences of these problems are serious, often life-threatening, and teachers are desperate to help,” said Krause.

“Yet at a time when the need for preventative, early intervention and specialist services are soaring, schools are finding it increasingly difficult to provide the help their pupils need. There’s an urgent requirement for better support mechanisms in schools, as well as decent funding for the range of mental health services children and young people need.”

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Promoting children’s welfare: foci on obesity and knives

17 Aug

Schools and academies are responsible for promoting children’s welfare and protecting them from harm.  They do so very well – indeed so much so that Children’s Social Services are relieved when they (the schools/academies) shut down for the summer recess. It is then that the pressure of constant referrals that schools/academies make to Social Workers of children being physically, sexually and emotionally abused or neglected reduces significantly.

Two other areas to which governors, headteachers and staff members should give some attention are children’s love of fast foods, especially their penchant for fast foods – a key cause of obesity – and the increasing incidence of knife crime.

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Main-scale teachers to receive a 3.5% increase in salaries but funding shortages deepens gloom

17 Aug

Shortly after the schools and academies closed for the summer term 2018, the government announced on 24 July 2018 – the last day of Parliament – the pay rises for teachers.

The awards were as follows.

  • 5% uplift to the minimum and maximum of the main pay range (MPR), which means that the salary of a teacher could rise from £1,184 to £1,366.
  • 2% uplift to the minimum and maximum of the upper pay range (UPR)
  • 5% uplift to the minimum and maximum of the leadership pay range

Academies do not have to comply with the Pay and Conditions Regulations and grant the pay increases, but schools must.    Schools have flexibility about pay rises on the points in between.  However, the teacher unions have warned that those that fail to pass on the full pay rise to teachers will face an ‘industrial relations disaster’.

Mary Bousted, joint general secretary of the NEU teaching union, told The Times Educational Supplement: “We have already heard from members on the last day of term [when the pay award was announced] whose school leaders have said, ‘Well, we can’t afford to pay.’ We expect the award to be paid in full to all members.”   She added that the NEU would be “monitoring that situation very closely”.  This is unsurprising, especially in the light of the DfE data that shows the percentage of academy trusts in deficit increased to 6.1% in 2016-17, a 0.6% rise on the previous year.

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Academy Trust Chiefs’ salaries continue to soar

17 Aug

I        Schools Week throws light on runaway salaries

It’s unsurprising that both, the producers and consumers, of educational policy and practice in the United Kingdom, especially in England are transfixed by the exorbitant salaries many Chief Education Officers of Multi-Academy Trusts (MATs) are drawing, given that the country’s schools and academies are going through financial straits.   In March 2018, Schools Week published an article based on an analysis that the magazine carried out of the MATs where each had at least 20 academies in them.  The results make compelling reading.

There were huge variations between the salaries of men and the per pupil funding of each MAT.   The headline information was as follows.

  • The highest paid CEO was Sir Dan Moynihan of the Harris Academy Trust at £440,000 annually – £10,000 per academy.
  • The CEO who secured the highest pay rise was John Murphy of the Oasis Community Learning Trust who went from £180,000 to £205,000 – £4,183 per academy – a 14% rise.
  • The lowest paid was John Mannix at Plymouth Cast Trust at £55,000 annually at £1,527 per academy.
  • The lowest paid per academy was John Coles of United Learning at £160,000 annually and £3,018 per academy.

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New Opportunity Fund to boost provision for bright, disadvantaged children

17 Aug

It is now official.  Bright children from disadvantaged backgrounds are underachieving.  Some time ago, the Sutton Trust were banging the drum for them.  Rebecca Allen, Director of Datalab who carried out the research for the Trust, revealed that a much higher proportion of children on free school meals or from disadvantaged backgrounds were unable to go on from primary SATs to secondary GCSEs and achieve similar results – even for those in the highest 10% of results at state primary school level in England.

The Social Mobility Commission had pointed out in the past that disadvantaged children of all ages underperform.   Allen’s research specifically compared the results of most able disadvantaged children at the primary stage with their later results in GCSEs.   She discovered that one of three boys eligible for free school meals – where households earned £16,000 or less annually or on benefits – who attained top marks at the end of Key Stage2 failed to feature among the top 25% of those at GCSE level.   Meanwhile, a quarter of disadvantaged girls who attained top Key Stage 2 results, failed to feature in the highest quarter of GCSE grades.

Allen wondered: “The highly able Pupil Premium children had the school and home support to do really well at primary school, so why do things go so wrong for some of them at secondary school?

“Nobody’s looked at how this happens; what sort of qualifications highly able Pupil Premium children take, or where this missing talent is in the country. Obviously, it is in areas that are underperforming generally, but there are also areas with good schools that nevertheless do poorly for highly able children.”

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Ofsted in the spotlight – again

17 Aug

I        Inspecting schools/academies – a high-risk business

Working as an inspector for Ofsted is a high-risk business.   Because inspections are obsessed with judgements, the exercise can have devastating consequences on schools and academies.  It is, therefore, unsurprising that Ofsted is constantly under scrutiny.

The great and the good, including Professors Dylan Wiliam, formerly of University College and Institute of Education London, and Robert Coe of Durham University, have been critical of Ofsted in the past.

William Stewart wrote in an article for The Times Educational Supplement in April 2015 that Wiliam said in 2012 that Ofsted needed to subject its school inspections to a proper evaluation of reliability, claiming the watchdog did “not know good teaching” when it saw it. Coe warned, in 2013, that Ofsted’s practice was not research- or evidence-based adding that it needed to demonstrate that its evaluations of lessons were valid by testing the judgements of different inspection teams.

Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector (HMCI) Amanda Spielman is making strenuous efforts to change the public perception of inspections.   First she is confronting schools/academy leaders who off-load their “disruptive” children – especially prior to a possible inspection and/or the examinations in which they are likely to fail.  Second, she is introducing a fairer inspection regimen that takes more account of children’s starting points.

Secretary of State Damian Hinds is giving his support.   For instance, he has made it clear that it is not going to be the Regional Schools’ Commissioners (RSCs) who will be inspecting and evaluating the quality of education in schools/academies but rather Ofsted that will judge the institutions.

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Head of steam developing for T levels as launch date draws nearer

17 Aug

I        What are the T Levels?

On 11 October 2017, the then Education Secretary, Justine Greening, announced the launch of the first three T (Technical) levels in September 2020. Delivered by a small number of providers, they will be

  • Childcare and Education (Education Pathway);
  • Digital (Software Applications Design Pathway); and
  • Construction (Building, Services and Engineering Pathway).

In September 2021, the six T Levels, which will join the first three, are

  • Legal, Finance and Accounting (Full Route);
  • Childcare and Education (Full Route);
  • Digital (Full Route);
  • Construction (Full Route);
  • Engineering and Manufacturing (Full Route); and
  • Health and Science (Full Route)

The remaining five, which will take off in September 2022, are

  • Hair and Beauty (Full Route);
  • Agriculture, Environment and Animal Care (Full Route);
  • Business and Administration (Full Route);
  • Catering and Hospitality (Full Route); and
  • Creative Design (Full Route).

A small number of providers will offer the first three qualifications from 2020.  Selected providers will deliver the six priority areas (see above) the following year.  The vast majority of providers will offer T levels by 2024.  The government intends to confirm who these providers will be in Autumn 2018.

II       Technical Studies: the Cinderella of Education

We in the United Kingdom have a problem with technology, which, in our educational system is Cinderella to her academic step-sisters, the A Levels.  To understand why, we must go back into history.

Sir Bernhard Samuelson, MP for Banbury and the son of a Swiss-German engineer, headed up a Royal Commission on technical instruction in the 1880s. He was the son of a Swiss-German engineer, who was a pioneer of the dual system of apprenticeship.   Sir Bernhard was charged with persuading the Treasury about the merits of his plans to give technical education the status that it deserved at a time when there was not much enthusiasm to provide the resources needed.   Accordingly, the mandarins (civil servants) had the then Chancellor agree to imposing a tax on whisky production to help local authorities achieve Sir Bernhard’s aims.

This was at a time when the Iron Chancellor of Germany, Otto von Bismark, was funding an expansive network of vocational schools in his country, many of which exist till today.    It wasn’t surprising, consequently, when Britain became the object of the joke of not being able to organise quality vocational training from a booze-up in a brewery.

The T levels initiative has been the brainchild of the Sainsbury Review 2016.   Sainsbury’s working group had found the existing vocational qualifications too confusing besides not providing young people with the necessary skills to succeed if not excel at work.  Altogether, £60 million has been made available this financial year to prepare for the launch of T levels.  This will rise to £445 million in 2021-22 and eventually to £500 million by the year following.

David Hughes, chief executive of the Association of Colleges, told The Times Educational Supplement: “The new T levels will need to fight hard to gain recognition and to be valued, but this announcement is a good first step. I look forward to working with the government on developing the pathways from level 2 through levels 3, 4 and 5 which are needed for success.”

Neil Carberry, managing director for people policy at the CBI, added: “Businesses will be encouraged by the positive progress on the introduction of T levels, though there is still much for companies and the government to address together. It’s important that these new technical routes are woven into the wider education system from the start, to ensure they are respected and are seen to have the same quality as A levels.”

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Government turns screws on schools and academies to promote technical education

17 Aug

I        What are the T Levels?

On 11 October 2017, the then Education Secretary, Justine Greening, announced the launch of the first three T (Technical) levels in September 2020. Delivered by a small number of providers, they will be

  • Childcare and Education (Education Pathway);
  • Digital (Software Applications Design Pathway); and
  • Construction (Building, Services and Engineering Pathway).

In September 2021, the six T Levels, which will join the first three, are

  • Legal, Finance and Accounting (Full Route);
  • Childcare and Education (Full Route);
  • Digital (Full Route);
  • Construction (Full Route);
  • Engineering and Manufacturing (Full Route); and
  • Health and Science (Full Route)

The remaining five, which will take off in September 2022, are

  • Hair and Beauty (Full Route);
  • Agriculture, Environment and Animal Care (Full Route);
  • Business and Administration (Full Route);
  • Catering and Hospitality (Full Route); and
  • Creative Design (Full Route).

A small number of providers will offer the first three qualifications from 2020.  Selected providers will deliver the six priority areas (see above) the following year.  The vast majority of providers will offer T levels by 2024.  The government intends to confirm who these providers will be in Autumn 2018.

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